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A bastion host is a computer on the internal network that is intentionally exposed to attack (, 2009). The host may be internal to your network but it is also forward facing. It is intentionally placed in ‘harm’s’ way, exposed so that the hosts that actually provide the service can remain protected. The Bastion host provides a layer of protection that other devices such as a firewall or an intrusion detection system do not… It is the focus of attack. A firewall should provide rules that keep the attacker at bay while the IDS will warn and in some cases thwart attacks. BUT the Bastion host WILL be attacked. It’s only a matter of time.

Just because the Bastion host doesn’t mean that it should be put out there unprotected. The host still needs to be hardened! There are many things one can do to protect the Bastion host.


Putting all of your Bastion hosts into a protected network is your first line of defense. Because of the increased potential of these hosts being compromised, they are placed into their own sub-network in order to protect the rest of the network if an intruder was to succeed (, 2009). At no time should a Bastion host have direct access to your protected resources! Internal (or protected) computers should only have access out to the Bastion host. As part of properly configured DMZ, routers/firewalls must be configured with ACLs (or Access Control Lists) so that only those events you (as the administrator) deemed acceptable are allowed to happen. Destination and source addresses need to be evaluated and rules need to be set in place to allow or deny access. Additionally, services ports need to be looked at as well. It may be acceptable for a source address to access port 80 (http) but not port 22 (ssh).

OS & Patches & ACLs

One thing to keep in mind when running a Bastion host is the box itself needs to be hardened. The OS needs to be kept up to date. Many vendors progressively secure their OS through security update. This may or may not be the right move. Vendors often roll multiple fixes into their updates… Sometimes it’s best to compile your own binary to install thus addressing the one service that may be affected by the vulnerability. Services that are not being used by the host should be disabled (or better yet) not installed… certain OS’s provide for this (Linux) others don’t (Apple). If the host has a host based firewall… turn it on configure it… block services that must run but could compromise the safety of the host. Secure the box through the use of ACLs (both user based as well as service based). It is usually up to the system administrator to determine through testing what ACLs they need to modify to lock down the network application as thoroughly as possible without disabling the very features that make is a useful tool (, 2009).


Tools like Tripwire and Nessus all play a part in base-lining your system. Tripwire is an excellent tool for determining the state of a file system. In broad strokes, it does this through the use of MD5 checksums. In theory, no two files (or disk images) will have the same exact checksum. Any changes, will result in a different checksum being produced. File integrity monitoring helps IT ensure the files associated with devices and applications across the IT infrastructure are secure, controlled, and compliant by helping IT identify improper changes made to these files, whether made maliciously or inadvertently ( 2009). So if an administrator, runs md5sum against a file system and then goes back a week later, if the checksums don’t match either he’s not on top of change control OR the system has been compromised! Nessus is a penetration-testing tool. In the case of Nessus, it looks at a database of know vulnerabilities and compares them with versions of software running on your host. When it finds a version of software running on your host that has been compromised, it will alert you to that fact. Should you find a software defect on your system it is imperative that you address the vulnerability through OS or patching and re-baseline.

Log Files

Syslog servers and log analyzers play an important role. Network monitoring solutions fit into this category as well! Logs are a vital part of understanding how your system is running. During the course of a few days or weeks massive amounts of information can be collected. Log files can tell you who tried to log in and when (or perhaps more importantly who failed to log in). It can tell you which files were accessed and by whom! It can tell you when a binary is having problems, either through miss-configuration or perhaps a bug (Heese, 2009). A wonderful tool for analyzing your data/log files is Splunk. It’s fast and allows you the ability to drill down through your log files in a very intuitive manner. Splunk can be configured to send alerts when certain criteria have been met. Sure you could do all this through shell scripts BUT you’d only be looking at the log files on one host! Because Splunk has the ability to act as a warehouse for all you system logs to can be set to look at multiple events across various systems and when combined can give you a true picture of your network/hosts.


You don’t become strong if you don’t learn! Systems that are exposed to the world need to be monitored. If you don’t, compromises will happen and you may not even know about it. A compromise host is not a matter of ‘if’ but rather ‘when’. Learning how your host was compromised can lead to better methods of securing it. Why leave it unprotected. Monitoring systems are essential to the well being of your systems. Why not take advantage of these automated systems. Spend the time to tune them. The more effort you put into it, the better the result will be, and the less false positives your IDS will flag! Know when an event is happening puts you back in control!


Dillard, K., (2009), Intrusion Detection FAQ: What is a bastion host? Retrieved on March 16th 2009 from

Heese, B., (2009, March 11), Log Management, Retrieved on March 17th 2009 from

Unknown, (2009), Bastion Hosts, Retrieved on March 17th 2009 from

Unknown, (2009), File Integrity Monitoring with Tripwire, Retrieved on March 17th 2009 from

Various, (2009, March 11), DMZ (computing), Retrieved on March 17th 2009 from


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Or Service Level Agreements are meant as a way to set the rules of the game. The game being, you (the customer) are buying a service from someone that has knowledge to help when you need it the most. Needless to say the more money you put up… the better the service you will be provided with. Wikipedia describes it like this:

The (expert) service provider can demonstrate their value by organizing themselves with ingenuity, capability and knowledge to deliver the service required, perhaps in an innovative way (, 2009)

WOW… sounds like a tall order! And it can be. But then again you’re paying for it so why not.

BUT… What if the provider hides behind heir SLA’s? Say for instance… you have a two-hour call back window? Can you ever expect to get a call before the SLA times out? Does that mean every time you call in, the provider waits the two hours before calling back? What if the problem is on going? Does it mean that every time you respond to one of their questions you have to wait another two hours? Where does good customer relations come into play? What do you think?

Various, (2009, March 13), Service level agreement, Retrieved on March, 16, 2009 from

For those individuals that think wikipedia is an unreliable source for reference-able material… Bullshit! Anyone can set up a website! Scams are a way of life on the Internet. Wikipedia is just as reliable as any other website on the Internet. Any information that is taken from the web must be taken with a grain of salt. One needs to apply reason. One needs to confirm that the source is credible. Very often individuals that are researching information on the Web are looking for specific pieces of information. Apply logic! If something doesn’t seem right, it’s probably not. Don’t use it as a source. Hope this helps! Besides my kid likes to see pictures anyway!

“Daddy, It’s not real without pictures.” – Will Heese Right?